(COLORADO) — Preply conducted a study that determined Colorado is the 9th most affectionate state in the country with Kansas claiming the number one spot.

Preply asked 2,335 people across the country “how they show and receive affection to determine the most affectionate state.” Beyond finding the rankings of the most affectionate states, here are the other key findings from the study:

  • 61% of people express their love over the phone and through text messages more than in-person.
  • More than 2 in 5 people sometimes say “I love you” without actually meaning it.
  • People are more affectionate to their pets than everyone except their partner.

According to Preply, “Our data shows that ‘the heartland’ deserves its nickname in more ways than one. Most of the top ten affectionate states in the U.S. are located in the center of the country.”

The measure of affection was based on people who share words of affection on a daily basis. The other eight states that beat out Colorado’s 72% are Kansas at 79%, Michigan at 78%, Kentucky at 75%, Indiana at 74%, West Virginia at 74%, Nebraska at 73%, Pennsylvania at 72%, and Oklahoma at 72%.

“Curiously, all of the states on our least-affectionate list border an ocean or a Great Lake. Residents of Illinois show the least affection (53%), with Massachusetts (55%), Oregon (56%), and New Hampshire (57%) following close behind,” Preply said.

Here is the list of the least affectionate states:

  • Illinois (53%)
  • Massachusetts (55%)
  • Oregon (56%)
  • Hawaii (57%)
  • New Hampshire (57%)
  • Florida (59%)
  • Ohio (60%)
  • Maine (60%)
  • New York (60%)
  • Maryland (60%)

Per Preply, “Most people in the U.S. are generally affectionate, with 2 in 3 (66%) on average sharing fond words daily. While some may find it natural to show affection in person, finding the right words to express love when you’re face to face may be difficult for others.”

Respondents had a preference for phone calls at 45% over letters and texts (35% and 20% respectively). 95% of those surveyed regularly share affection with partners while pets came in second on that list at 64%. Rounding out those results are moms at 46%, friends at 35%, and siblings at 27%, with dads being the least likely at 25%.

“Nearly 2 in 3 (62%) people tell another person they love them daily. It’s a good thing, too, since more than half (55%) of people want to hear their partner say they love them. On the other hand, the same amount (55%) sometimes find it hard to express affection through words, and a full 42% admit to sometimes saying ‘I love you’ without actually meaning it,” Preply said.

Pets get the bulk of affection after partners with 54% of pet owners showing more affection to pets than other people including family members. Colorado also ranked at 72% for affection towards pets.

Of note in the methodology, according to Preply, “We surveyed 2,335 people across the U.S. The following states were excluded due to lack of statistically significant response volume: Alaska, Delaware, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming.”